Thursday, 7 September 2017

Work Place Ethical Dilemmas and Solutions

Business Ethics
Businesses operate in an increasingly complex environment characterized by a conflict of interests. The predominant determinants of the acceptability of a business idea, product, or venture are the societal ethics. Individual perception of the manner in which the company conducts its operations receives influence from the fundamental moral grounds. The conflict between the principles and the theoretical imperatives result in the complexity of the matter. An integrated use of the normative, descriptive, and the stages of moral development develop a guideline on evaluating the compliance of a business activity to the known moral perspectives in the society. The normative theory is a conglomeration of sub-theories that explores the identifiable differences between the right and the wrong. On the contrary, the descriptiveapproach explores individual’s perception of morality. The stages of moral development offer a viable solution to the business dilemma. The phases acknowledge the moral reasoning as the basis for ethical behavior in not only business but also across a variety of human actions.
The Ethical Dilemma
Discrimination among employees in a company is a common practice in the contemporary business environment. The setting of the business entity requires adherence to the fundamental societal and workplace ethical practices such as balance in gender treatment across the male and female workers (Eikhof, 2012). Nevertheless, the traditional perception that jobs could be categorizedin accordance with the accompanying need for power segments the industry into two categories. Kelan (2009) notes that deeming some jobs as specifically meant for men while others favor the female gender draws discriminatory demarcations as per our Marketing assignment help team working in different scenarios. Some companies operate in environments dominated by male employees only. For instance, the General Motors Company in the United States of America prefers male automotive engineers to work in the workshops citing the nature of duties performed (Sugiman, 2001). Therefore, the introduction of a female worker into the environment stirs mixed reactions from the male workers that may psychologically affect the subject. The most common forms of response entail sexual harassment and weird comments. In response, the manager may resolve to move the new employee to a new workplace. Treating the employee differently emerges as discriminatory and ethically questionable.
Justification
Workplace ethics provide that the handling of employees should depict some sense of equality in wages and gender-related issues. However, some companies consider the nature of the tasks to ensure fair treatment of female and male laborers. Consequently, the balance between men and women in the workplace is affected by the desire to employ the most efficient caliber of people to serve in the firm. The condition leads to the establishment of a working environment in which one gender dominates the scene. Malos (2007) observes that the society has a perception that the most arduous tasks attract male laborers whereas the women scramble for less physical duties. Hence, it is more likely that the nature of the job dictates the preference of workers. The case in which a company dominated by male employees considers inclusion of a female employee amounts to the dilemma.
Buckner, Hindman, Huelsman, & Bergman (2014)cite a possible adverse reaction from the male workers due to lack of adaptive strategies to unprecedented changes. Fundamentally, firms conduct sensitivity training to prepare employees for random eventualities such as changes in workplace environments (Buckner et. al., 2014). The exercise boosts the immunity of employees to the introduction of unfamiliar objects in the places of work as per our strategic management assignment help team in UK. The dominance of the masculine gender over the female counterparts explains the growing rift between the expected and the observed treatment among workers in firms.
The handling of gender issues in business is entirely sophisticated. Ethically, employees are entitled to fair treatment that entails the freedom of association and movement (Magnani, 2012). Nevertheless, the introduction of a female worker in a male-dominated workplace draws considerable attention. The consequent actions by the administration are subject to test for moral and ethical compliance. For instance, the supervisor may opt to relocate the laborer to secluded places away from the sight of other employees to evade interference. Alternatively, the manager may consider the elimination of the individual through laying off and sanction the employees responsible for the misconduct. The options trigger the intervention of business ethics as an exploratory tool.
Moral and ethical misconduct deviate from the societal expectations. The action by the manager to move the worker to a new place of work deprives the individual the psychological and mental freedom. The employee operates under limited autonomy resulting from the unfair treatment by fellow workmates. The dilemma emanates from the determination of the best action to be taken by the manager to salvage the situation.
The Normative theory of utilitarianism exposes the complexity of the situation. The basic concept of the theory suggests the performance of a cost-benefit analysis of the preferred choice (Palmer, 1999). Utilitarianism puts into consideration the consequences of the actions in the aftermath. Businesswise, punishing the employees responsible for the misconduct would reduce their productivity. Similarly, relocating the female employee to an unintended unit violates the initial objective of recruiting the worker. Both choices have a serious impact on the overall performance of the business and the affected laborers. The second perspective considers the consequences of the actions to the new stakeholder. On moral grounds, the female worker is entitled to serene working environments free from distractions as per human resource management assignment help experts. The supervisor’s decision to isolate the workerviolates the individual’s right to association (Jones, 2002). Likewise, terminating the job would violate the provisions put across by the normative theory. For instance, the applied utilitarianism discourages breach of contracts via breaking promises. According to Dion (2012), termination of employment contract upsets the individual and amounts to time wastage. Ethically, sacking, or transferring the worker is a breach of contract that depicts non-compliance to work ethics.


Wednesday, 6 September 2017

Profitability Ratio- How to Calculate and Interpret?


Profitability ratios tell us how well a firm manages its assets, typically in terms of the proportion of revenues that are left over after expenses. They therefore measure the overall profitability of the company and enable a comparison between two years to determine whether the company is doing better or worse than the previous year as explained by our UK accounting homework help online experts. In this analysis this report will assess profitability by examining the following ratios:
  • The Gross Profit Margin
·         The Net Profit Margin
·         The Return on Capital Employed
An examination of the Gross Profit margin shows a considerable year on year improvement. “A record gross margin of 61.8% was achieved for the full year, an Improvement of 376 basis points compared to the prior year.” (Specialty Fashion Group Limited; Directors’ Report; 2013 Annual Report; pg. 31.)  The Directors’ Report attributed the improved Gross margin position to reduced product costs and reduced freight costs which resulted from investments made in transforming the supply chain. The point to note is that the company has improved its position and was able to recover from a negative net income position in the previous year. This success was partly due to increased online trading which grew by 50% in the current year. The evaluation of the Net Profit margin shows it was three percent(3%) for 2013 up from negative one percent ( – 1% ) in 2012. The Net Profit Margin is important because it represents the bottom line. If the ratio is too low a business needs to look at its operating expenses. Also attention has to be paid to its cost of sales since the size of the Gross Profit impacts upon the Net Profit as per our best UK accounting homework helpers. For Specialty Fashion Group Limited it indicates that for every $100 of sales $3.00 was left for profit after deducting cost of sales and operating expenses. This has increased for Specialty Fashion group limited and can have resulted from increased selling prices and tighter control of operating costs.

The Return on capital employed also showed a positive increase in 2013 up from a negative figure in the previous year. This ratio was 22% in 2013 up from a negative one percent (-1%) inn 2012. “The ROCE is the primary ratio and is considered the most important of the ratios and the one that forms the starting point in ratio analysis.” (Randall H. 3rd ed; 2001; pg.463) This can serve as a benchmark for Specialty Fashions limited when borrowing or assessing a new project. It is already showing signs of improvement which is a positive sign. If it is too low it could easily turn into a loss if the company’s fortunes were reversed.

Friday, 1 September 2017

Financial Analysis- Approach to solve finance Assignment

1: Introduction:
Public companies especially those which are listed on the different stock exchanges worldwide, use substantial quantities of financial and other resources preparing and presenting financial statements. Their aim is to make the information contained therein available to interested stakeholders. The annual report is also meant to fulfil the regulatory requirements of reporting the financial performance and situation of the entity. “Financial statements are the main and often the only source of information to lenders and outside investors regarding a business’s financial performance and condition.” (The Fast Forward MBA in Finance; John A. Tracy: 2002; 2nd ed. Pg. 39)
While such reports may contain quite a lot of relevant information about the performance and financial health of the entity, they very often conceal more than they reveal.
Those seeking to fully understand the performance of the entity at a more meaningful level need to not only observe the information, but to drill down into the detail and extract the essence. Such evaluations can be assisted with the utilization of key ratios.
The aim of this report is to provide a financial analysis of the Annual Report and Financials Statements of Specialty Fashion Group Limited, a company listed on the Australian Stock Exchange. It will attempt to examine the relevant ratios relating to the entity’s profitability, efficiency, short term solvency, long term solvency, and shareholders’ investment returns. Comparisons will be made to previous reporting periods to analyze emerging trends and developments and to identify factors which may or have impacted on the entity’s performance. Conclusions will then be drawn as to whether overall performance has improved or not and suggestions will be made as to how the entity can improve its performance when going forward.

2: A Brief History of the Company:
Specialty Fashion Group (SFG) is the largest retailer of women’s fashion in Australia, making women everywhere look good and feel great through five diverse brands that offer style and value.  The company’s brands include Autograph, City Chic, Crossroads, Katies and Millers.
The founding management team - Sam Moss, Ian Miller and Gary Perlstein opened the company’s first two stores in 1993 in Surry Hills and Wollongong under the trading name of Miller’s Fashion Club. By December 2003, 20 stores were trading as Miller’s Fashion Club in NSW and the ACT.
SFG sells a garment every second in Australia, New Zealand or the United States through our portfolio of about 900 stores and our seven online businesses.
SFG has one of the largest women’s customer communities in Australasia with 6.2 million members and can reach over 1.5 million members through email. Our members’ loyalty is high, representing over 80% of sales.
On 28th May 1998, the business was listed on the Australian Stock Exchange with 147 stores across Australia under the name of Miller’s Retail Limited.


3: Main Objectives of the Report:

The objectives of this report are
·         To critically evaluate the performance of the entity for the financial year 2013.
·         To compare the entity’s performance over a two year period to identify strengths, weaknesses and emerging trends.
·         To calculate the necessary ratios and use them as tools in the financial analysis
·         To draw conclusions from the analysis and make relevant recommendations for future improvement of the entity.




4: Financial Analysis of Specialty Fashion Group Limited:
Financial analysis is the basis for investment and financing decisions. In order to evaluate the entity we need to do such an analysis. “Financial analysis is one of the many tools useful in valuation because it helps the financial analyst gauge returns and risks.” (Fabozzi F. J. and Patterson P.P. 2nd edn; 2003; pg. 721) This analysis is conducted by calculating ratios and comparing the business’ performance over time in this case as explained by financial accounting homework help service providers. Rratios cannot be viewed in isolation; we thus need to look at several different aspects of a firm’s presented data at the same time in order to make judgments regarding its operating performance and financial condition.
“Accounting ratios summarize financial relationships. They allow comparisons over time, with other firms, and with internal budgets. There are problems in using ratios; they raise questions rather than providing definite answers.” (Myddelton D. R. 1996; pg.124) A ratio by itself is useless, their usefulness comes from the relationships that they allow us to establish between different variables, thereby permitting comparisons and enabling the analyst to draw conclusions. This means that their usefulness is limited by the accuracy of the data from which they have been calculated and they can be misleading because data can be distorted by inflation for example. In order to complete the analysis, the examination of the data will be divided into five areas each of which will be assessed with a different set of ratios as explained by accounting homework helpers. The five groups of ratios are:
·         Profitability ratios
·         Efficiency ratios
·         Short term solvency/liquidity ratios
·         Long term solvency ratios

·         Shareholders’ Investment  ratios

Effect of social media on consumer behavior And their purchase decision process

Scope of the study:
The phenomenal growth of digital technology, during the recent times, has revolutionized the global marketplace by shifting the paradigm of focus to e- commerce. Social media has created a unique landscape in consumer buying behavior that provides new grid of network in personal connection. In recent years, the advent of social media has transformed the traditional marketing approach and offers immense scope to the marketers to tap the true potential of social media. Social media has a much higher level of efficiency relative to the other communication channels that prompt the business across the world to participate and advertise in social networking site like Facebook, Twitter, My Space and others as find by our marketing assignment help experts. Social media plays a pivotal role in the consumer purchase decisions. In all the fives stages of consumer’s buying decision process, social media has a significant impact (Elisabeta Ioanăs, Ivona Stoica.2014).
This research study attempts to address the issue of growing importance of social media in consumer’s purchase decision making process. This current study further explores the role and impact of social media on consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia. This study puts an insight on how the consumers in Saudi Arabia during each stage of their purchase decision making process are influenced by social media interaction. Based on intensive research, analysis of the data and interpretation of the findings, this study provides recommendations on the future scope of untapped potential of social media in Saudi Arabia.
            The relevance of the study:
Today a growing number of businesses are providing their strong focus on social media for their marketing activities. In this era of information social media provides the unique platform where the business can have direct and close interaction with the potential consumers, clarify all their doubts, improve their  purchase decision strategy and build a strong and long lasing relations with their customers. Due to social media, the business now has a greater power to influence the consumer behavior in every stage of their purchase decision. To consumers, social media acts as a new and innovative channel to acquire the information about product and services through peer communication. Consumers are now influenced by sharing the ideas and views of the relevant product, going through the reviews of other consumers or evaluating the brand positions strategy in the social networking site. This relevancy is quite important for student looking for online exam help in their marketing research paper. Whether it is vacation, food, health care or home décor, consumers will have an intensive search in social media to ensure the quality of the product as well as to have the best value for their money (Saini1 N. Bansal  S K & Singh  R I 2014).

Social media is gaining popularity exponentially in Saudi Arabia today.  Online buying behavior among the Saudi Arabian consumers especially among the women has received considerable attention by researchers in the area of social science and management studies. The primary focus of this study is to examine how different types of social media affects the various stages of purchase decision making process of the buyers in the context of Saudi Arabia. This study definitely has scholarly importance because the e commerce boom is expected to enhance the productivity, improve the competitiveness and thereby accelerates the economic growth of Saudi Arabia (Abdul-Rahim Ahmad, Najmul Hoda. 2014).

Thursday, 30 March 2017

Auditing Assignment Help Examples: GAAP standards, Communications and specific Actions

GAAP Standards


It states that firms depending on the reporting necessities of the Securities Exchange Act’1934, excluding the registered firms of investment banking, should incorporate a testimony of management on the firm’s in-house governance on financial accounting in their respective annual reports.
  Internal regulation report should have the following things: an account of management’s obligation for creating and upholding sufficient internal power on the financial reporting on the firm’s last fiscal year, a proclamation recognizing the agenda which is used by the firm’s management to assess the efficacy of the firm’s internal regulation over financial accounting, lastly, a declaration by the registered public secretarial firm which has audited the financial accounts of the company has comprised of an verification report on administration’s evaluation of the firm’s internal governance on financial reporting. As per the new regulations, the annual report of a company must also include verification report as per our auditing assignment help experts.  In addition to this, a necessity is being added that administration can assess any variation in the company’s internal governance which may or have affected the firm’s in-house control over financial accounting.
 Audit evidence is the sole information for the auditor to attain a deduction on which the audit opinion is based. It comprises of the facts and figures used to state financial statements of the accounting records. (Bush,2005)  Auditors aren’t required to go through all the information present.  

Communication as per Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS)


 The auditor has been given the charge of making and then stating his views whether the financial statements documented by the management with the inaccuracy of those blamed with governance are displayed in proper order, in all material respects, and also in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles. Even after the audit neither the management nor the accused exploiting his governance is set free. The responsibilities are either conveyed through the engagement letter or any other bond or agreement having the terms of the engagement. For Ex: Auditors might take ratio analysis assignment help to do any analysis but its insights must be communicated properly to the management. The auditor is the sole authority for carrying out the audit in conformity with the generally accepted auditing norms and that the audit is designed to achieve reasonable, quantified surety regarding the financial statements being free of material statements. This might not be followed while doing auditing for Bovar properly.

Specific Action



 The auditor is accountable for passing on matters related to financial statement audit that are, in the auditor's professional judgment, in accordance to the responsibilities of those charged with governance in mistaking the financial reporting process. The auditor does not exercise ways in case of general accepted standards of audit when for determining to communicate with the charged with governance. At relevant times the auditor is also liable for sharing particular matters as per the need of law & regulation, through a bond with the body or by additional requirements related to the engagement. This must be followed to make audit as per GAAS standard.

Tuesday, 14 March 2017

Different Costing Techniques, Its Uses, Tax Implications and Complexities associated with it

The organizations have choices to use the various costing techniques to achieve the high return from the management and operations. The organization can use two types of costing techniques: specific order costing technique and operation costing technique.

Specific order costing technique: This type of technique is used where the work comprises of separate jobs or contracts. Each contract is authorised by an order. This type of costing includes job, batch and contract.

Operation costing technique: This type of technique is used in the environment where goods and services are produced as a result of sequence of activities or in other words a continuous operation. In this costing methods cost is averaged over the number of units produced.

For the organizations, the operation costing technique is recommended as most of the operations in three businesses are based on the practices and approaches those are rarely changed. The organization needs to use the operation costing techniques to optimize the return from the regular operations as per our advanced accounting homework help online service providers.

 The three businesses are common in term of operations as human resource management and operations to meet the organizational objectives are same. However, the operations may be different to deliver the effective customer services and supports. Therefore the operation costing techniques can be used in all businesses of the organization to enhance the productivity and performance with available set of resources (Belobaba.et.al. 2015).

The business to manufacturing white goods is required to use the operation costing as the business has large number of employees and assets those are not properly managed to achieved the optimistic performance. This is also corroborated by taxation team checking the costing aspects to get taxation homework help.  In order to align the business operations and objectives on the optimum returns, it is necessary to determine the flow of finance and efforts. The business can use the operation costing techniques to analyse the cost of operations per employees and resources in workplace. Once the cost is analysed, better strategies can be made to enhance the finance flow and to organization of resources. However the issues may appear to analyse the cost on resources those are remote in nature or have rapid changes (Dhillon, 2013). The staff and resources may be rapidly replaced in section of business. The marketing demands and changes also impact the operations and in such cases, it is difficult to predict the operation cost per resource.

In commercial airlines, the customer satisfaction is the prime point of focus for organization. Most of the operations in business are aligned to meet the customer requirements and benefits in time of competitive advantages. Organization can use the operation costing to simplify the operations for the customer. This concept can be used to get business case study homework help in academics. For example the cost can be used to set up the easy online system instead of manual operations to enhance the customer satisfaction and service quality. Operation costing can be used to define the cost on order booking, customer welcoming, operations to manage the services and to deliver the market impact. The operation costing techniques can be used to determine the continuous operations in business and to define the new approaches to reduce the cost with better service management and resource allocation (Bazargan, 2016). The staff and assets can be managed effectively after analysing the cost per unit. However, the environment changes and market perception for the airline service may impact the internal operations and services for customers. As a result the cost per unit may change to meet the changes in business operations. The dynamic cost identification is also required to delimit the operation costing technique.


Balance Score Card and Its Advantages

Balanced scorecard

Balanced scorecard is a performance management tool that gives a semi-structured report considering the methods and automation tools. This technique is used by the managers to keep the track on the activities of the staff that involves monitoring and controlling of the actions arising from the consequences as per our finance assignment help online UK experts.  Balance scorecard is used by strategic management so as to find out the different strategic function and improve the outcomes of the function. Balance scorecard is used for providing feedback to organizations for improving the performance. Using the balanced score card, it requires the organisation to viewed from 4 different perspectives. The organisation needs to develop metrics, collect data and further analyse these for all four perspectives. The four perspectives are as follows:
  • Financial perspective
  • Customer perspective
  • Internal perspectives
  • Innovative and learning perspective
Benefits of balance scorecards
There are several benefits of using the balance scorecards in any organisation that are as follows:
  • The first advantage is that, it gives a balanced view on the performance of the whole organisation by covering the major four aspects and focusing whether the organisation is meeting the set objectives. It may be possible that one aspect is performing well while the other is not able to achieve the objectives as explained by our human resource assignment help experts. For example: the organisation is generating good revenue but it may be possible that customer satisfaction is getting down or employee training is inadequate etc.
  • The second advantage is that, it gives the stakeholders to determine the short, medium and long term goals at the one peak by covering all the aspects. Whenever the accountant see that the organisation is not performing well he/she makes the short or immediate plan that don’t serve the purpose of the organisation. Balanced scorecard overcomes this limitation.
  • The third advantage is that, it gives assurance that the strategic actions executed meet the desired objectives that means is the customer is satisfied with product or the product serves the higher quality that involves creative and innovative processes.